Japanese KSAD Pattern: ko (こ), so (そ), a (あ), do (ど) 2017-08-21T21:36:17+00:00
Japanese KSAD Pattern: ko, so, a, do

Learn Japanese Grammar – The Demonstrative KSAD Pattern

Now I would like to introduce the series of Japanese demonstratives, named after prefixes ko (こ), so (そ), a (あ), do (ど).  We often refer to this as the “KSAD pattern”.

Word Meaning  Sound  Example
これ (Kore) this one kore wa anata  no saifu desu  

 

これあなたのさいふです。
kore
wa anata no saifu desu.

(This is your wallet.)

 

それ (Sore) that one sore wa watashi no ie desu  

 

それわたしのいえです。
sore
wa watashi no ie desu.

(That is my house.)

 

あれ (Are) that one over there are wa watashi no neko desu  

 

あれわたしのねこです。
are
wa watashi no neko desu.
(That is my cat over there.)

 

どれ (Dore) which one dore ga kanojo no kuruma desu ka  

 

どれがかのじょのくるまです
dore
ga kanojo no kuruma desu ka?

(Which one is her car?)

 

“Question words” like dore cannot be followed by the particle wa.  Instead, they must be followed by が (ga).

が (ga) is a subject marker similar to the topic marker, は (wa).   We will touch more on that later!  Just remember to use it with the questions (which, where, etc.)

I will show you some more KSAD sets that you will see often:

 

Word Meaning   Sound  Example
ここ (Koko) here koko wa kare no gakkou desu  

 

ここかれのがっこうです。
koko
 wa kare no gakkou desu.

(Here is his school.)

 

そこ (Soko) there soko wa watashi no ie desu  

 

そこはわたしのいえです。
soko
 wa
watashi no ie desu.

(There is my house.)

 

あそこ (Asoko) over there asoko wa watashi no kaisha desu  

 

あそこはわたしのかいしゃです。
asoko
 wa
watashi no kaisha desu.
(Over there is my company.)

 

どこ (Doko) where doko ga kanojo no ie desu ka  

 

どこかのじょのいえですか
doko
 ga
 kanojo no ie desu ka?

(Where is her house?)

 

 

Word Meaning   Sound  Example
この (Kono) this (noun) kono saifu wa anata no desu  

 

このさいふはあなたのです。
kono saifu wa anata no desu.
(This wallet is yours.)

 

その (Sono) that (noun) sono ie wa watashi no desu  

 

そのいえはわたしのです。
sono ie wa watashi no desu.
(That house is mine.)

 

あの (Ano) that (noun) over there ano neko wa watashi no desu  

 

あのねこはわたしのです。
ano
neko wa
watashi no desu.
(That cat over there is mine.)

 

どの (Dono) which (noun) dono kuruma ga kanojo no desu ka  

 

どのくるまがかのじょのです
dono kuruma ga kanojo no desu ka?
(Which car is her’s?)

 

 

The following KSAD set is a very polite alternative to both “Kore, Sore, Are, Dore” and “Koko, Soko, Asoko, Doko”.  It naturally implies a direction (as in “please look this way”) with a place, object or person at the destination.  In fact, it should be your preferred method when referring to people:
Word Meaning   Sound  Example
こちら (Kochira) this kochira wa watashi no okaasan desu  

 

こちらわたしのおかあさんです
kochira wa watashi no okaasan desu.
(This is my mother.)

 

そちら (Sochira) that sochira wa watashi no otousan desu  

 

そちらわたしのおとうさんです
sochira wa watashi no otousan desu.
(That is my father.)

 

あちら (Achira) that over there achira wa watashi no imouto desu  

 

あちらわたしのいもうとです
achira wa watashi no imouto desu.
(That over there is my younger sister.)

 

どちら (Dochira) which one, or where dochira no kuruma ga kanojo no desu ka  

 

どちらのくるまがかのじょのです
dochira no kuruma ga kanojo no desu ka?
(Which car is her’s?)

 

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