The Casual form in past tense 2017-08-21T20:45:37+00:00
Learn Japanese Verbs - Lesson 5: The Casual Form in Past Tense

Learn Japanese Verbs – Lesson 5: The Casual Form in Past Tense

In this lesson, we are going to start conjugating verbs into different tenses of the casual form.  The only casual form we have touched on so far is also known as the plain form from Lesson 1. Just to review, the plain form is the casual form in present/future tense.  We then proceeded to learn all the polite conjugations because, well, they’re pretty easy!  We are much better prepared now for what’s coming.  It’s a little more challenging, but the concept of dropping or changing the ending of a verb remains the same as our polite form conjugations.
たべる
taberu
stem ending
たべ
tabe

ru
Dropping the ending (ru) and adding ta is all we need to do with verbs that end with the iru/eru sound.  Taberu continues to be my favorite example of this.  I would say “tabeta” if I was letting a friend know that I have already eaten.  Just to remind you, this is the casual form.. so I would not say this in a formal setting!  With casual conversation, I would say “tabeta” at home or with some friends.
Just as my previous lessons, I will lay out the rules again for verbs that do not end with an “iru” or “eru” sound.  I will use “aruku” as my example since it does not end with an iru/eru sound.  

Dictionary Form
ある
aruku
Polite Form
あるきます
arukimasu

Since we don’t have an “iru/eru” ending (as we did with taberu), we change the ending, rather than dropping it.  The ku changes to a kimasu.  All other endings that don’t end with an iru or eru sound will share a similar kind of change:

ku changes to ita   su changes to shta
aruku aruita kesu  keshita
       
tsu changes to tta nu changes to nda 
tatsu tatta shinu shinda
       
mu changes to nda au changes to atta
nomu nonda arau aratta

 

 

To summarize the rule…
If it ends with iru/eru, drop the ru and add ta..
Otherwise change the ending with the chart above!
Of course there is always a few exceptions!  You might recognize “irregular verb cat” from my last lessons.  He doesn’t look like he wants to follow the rules.   Don’t let him get away messing up our system!  These are the pesky “rule breakers” that you will have to memorize from the flashcard set:
suru (did) is shita
kuru (came) is kita
kaeru (returned) is kaetta
hashiru (ran) is hashitta
kiru (cut) is kitta.
hairu (entered) is haitta.

Conjugate these verbs from the plain-form into the casual form in past tense:

 

[qdeck align=”center”; style=”width: 400px; height: 285px; border: 4px solid #000080;” random=”false”] [h] Verb Flashcards – Past Tense (Casual)
[q] あく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あいた(aita)

(something) opens
[q] あるく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あるいた(aruita)

to walk
[q] いく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]いった(itta)

to go
[q] おく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おいた(oita)

to put
[q] かく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かいた(kaita)

to write / draw
[q] きく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]きいた(kiita)

to listen / hear / ask
[q] さく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]さいた(saita)

to bloom / flower
[q] つく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ついた(tsuita)

to arrive
[q] なく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ないた(naita)

to bark / mew / cry
[q] はく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はいた(haita)

to put on shoes or pants / to sweep
[q] はたらく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はたらいた(hataraita)

to work
[q] ひく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ひいた(hiita)

to pull something / to play an instrument
[q] ふく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ふいた(fuita)

to blow
[q] みがく – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]みがいた(migaita)

to polish / brush
[q] およぐ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]およいだ(oyoida)

to swim
[q] ぬぐ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ぬいだ(nuida)

to take off / undress
[q] おす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おした(oshita)

to push
[q] かえす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かえした(kaeshta)

to return (something)
[q] かす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かした(kashita)

to lend
[q] けす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]けした(keshita)

to turn off / put out
[q] さす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]さした(sashita)

to put (up an umbrella) / to point out
[q] だす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]だした(dashita)

to extract / take out
[q] なくす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]なくした(nakushita)

to lose (something)
[q] はなす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はなした(hanashita)

to speak/talk/tell
[q] わたす – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]わたした(watashita)

to hand over
[q] しぬ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しんだ(shinda)

to die
[q] あそぶ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あそんだ(asonda)

to play
[q] よぶ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]よんだ(yonda)

to call/invite
[q] すむ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]すんだ(sunda)

to live/reside (in)
[q] たのむ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]たのんだ(tanonda)

to ask (a favor)
[q] のむ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]のんだ(nonda)

to drink
[q] やすむ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]やすんだ(yasunda)

to take a rest / be absent
[q] よむ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]よんだ(yonda)

to read
[q] あう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あった(atta)

to meet / to fit
[q] あらう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あらった(aratta)

to wash
[q] いう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]いった(itta)

to say/speak/tell/talk
[q] うたう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]うたった(utatta)

to sing
[q] かう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かった(katta)

to buy
[q] すう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]すった(sutta)

to inhale/smoke
[q] ちがう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ちがった(rakatta)

to be different / wrong
[q] つかう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]つかった(tsukatta)

to use
[q] ならう – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ならった(naratta)

to learn
[q] たつ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]たった(tatta)

to stand up
[q] まつ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]まった(matta)

to wait
[q] もつ – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]もった(motta)

to have / hold
[q] ある – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あった(atta)

to be (inanimate) / have
[q] うる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]うった(utta)

to sell
[q] おわる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おわった(owatta)

to finish
[q] かえる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かえった(kaetta)

to return / go home
[q] かかる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かかった(kakatta)

to take (time / money)
[q] かぶる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かぶった(kabutta)

to put on (a hat)
[q] ~がる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]~がった(~gatta)

(somebody) wants to
[q] きる – Past | Positive | (casual)
(not to wear)[a]きった(kitta)

to cut
[q] こまる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]こまった(komatta)

to be in trouble
[q] しまる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しまった(shimatta)

(something) closes
[q] しる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しった(shitta)

to know
[q] すわる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]すわった(suwatta)

to sit down
[q] つくる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]つくった(tsukutta)

to make / form / cook
[q] とまる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]とまった(tomatta)

(something) stops
[q] とる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]とった(totta)

to take
[q] なる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]なった(natta)

to become
[q] のぼる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]のぼった(nobotta)

to climb
[q] のる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]のった(notta)

to get on
[q] はいる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はいった(haitta)

to enter
[q] はしる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はしった(hashitta)

to run
[q] はじまる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はじまった(hajimatta)

(something) starts
[q] はる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はった(hatta)

to put / stick
[q] ふる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ふった(futta)

to fall (rain / snow)
[q] まがる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]まがった(magatta)

to turn
[q] やる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]やった(yatta)

to do
[q] わかる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]わかった(wakatta)

to understand
[q] わたる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]わたった(watatta)

to cross
[q] あける – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あけた(aketa)

(somebody) opens
[q] あげる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あげた(abeta)

to give
[q] いれる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]いれた(ireta)

to put in
[q] うまれる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]うまれた(umareta)

to be born
[q] おしえる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おしえた(oshieta)

to tell / teach
[q] おぼえる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おぼえた(oboeta)

to memorize
[q] かける – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かけた(kaketa)

to make a phone call / hang
[q] かける – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かけた(kaketa)

to put on glasses
[q] きえる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]きえた(kieta)

to disappear
[q] こたえる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]こたえた(kotaeta)

to answer / reply
[q] しめる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しめた(shimeta)

(somebody) closes
[q] たべる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]たべた(tabeta)

to eat
[q] つかれる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]つかれた(tsukareta)

to get tired
[q] つける – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]つけた(tsuketa)

to turn on / light
[q] つとめる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]つとめた(tsutometa)

to work for
[q] でる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]でた(deta)

to leave / attend
[q] ならべる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]ならべた(narabeta)

to line (things) up
[q] はれる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はれた(hareta)

to clear up
[q] みせる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]みせた(miseta)

to show
[q] わすれる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]わすれた(wasureta)

to forget
[q] あびる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]あびた(abita)

to take (a shower)
[q] いる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]いた(ita)

(for people) to exist / stay
[q] おきる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おきた(okita)

to get up
[q] おりる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]おりた(orita)

to get off
[q] かりる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かりた(karita)

to borrow / rent
[q] きる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]きた(kita)

to wear
[q] できる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]できた(dekita)

can (do) / be ready
[q] みる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]みた(mita)

to see / watch / look
[q] かいぎ(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かいぎ(を)した(kaigi o shita)

to hold a meeting
[q] かいもの(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]かいもの(を)した(kaimono o shita)

to go shopping
[q] けっこん(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]けっこん(を)した(kekkon o shita)

to get married
[q] コピー(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]コピー(を)した(copii o shita)

to make a copy
[q] さんぽ(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]さんぽ(を)した(sanpo o shita)

to take a walk
[q] しごと(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しごと(を)した(shigoto o shita)

to work
[q] しつもん(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しつもん(を)した(shitsumon o shita)

to ask somebody a question
[q] する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]した(shita)

to do
[q] しゅくだい(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]しゅくだい(を)した(shukudai o shita)

to do homework
[q] せんたく(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]せんたく(を)した(sentaku o shita)

to do laundry
[q] そうじ(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]そうじ(を)した(souji o shita)

to clean
[q] でんわ(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]でんわ(を)した(denwa o shita)

to make a phone call
[q] はなし(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]はなし(を)した(hanashi o shita)

to have a talk
[q] パーティー(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]パーティー(を)した(paatii o shita)

to have a party
[q] べんきょう(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]べんきょう(を)した(benkyou o shita)

to study
[q] りょうり(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]りょうり(を)した(ryouri o shita)

to cook
[q] りょこう(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]りょこう(を)した(ryokou o shita)

to take a trip
[q] れんしゅう(を)する – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]れんしゅう(を)した(renshuu o shita)

to practice
[q] くる – Past | Positive | (casual)[a]きた(kita)

to come
[/qdeck]
Negative Polite Form, Non-Past Negative Casual Form, All Tenses
Negative Polite Form, Non-past Japanese Verbs Index Negative Casual Form, All tenses