Polite form in the past tense 2017-08-21T20:46:19+00:00
Learn Japanese Verbs - Lesson 3: The Polite Form in Past Tense

Learn Japanese Verbs – Lesson 3: The Polite Form in Past Tense

In the last lesson, we changed the ending of a verb in it’s plain form.  Taberu became Tabemasu.  We also learned that if the verb doesn’t end in an “iru” or “eru” sound, then we have to make a special change.  For example, Aruku became Arukimasu.  If you are comfortable with that conjugation, then the next step is changing to the past tense.  Changing to the past tense using polite form is as simple as changing masu to mashita.  For example, 
tabmasu tabemashita
(I eat) becomes (I ate)
Changing from masu to mashita is easy, but if you are conjugating directly from plain-form then I will lay out the same steps as I did before.  The rule, modified for past tense, becomes this:
If a verb ends with an iru/eru sound, drop the ru and add mashita

..Otherwise change the ending with this chart.

  ku changes to kimashita   su changes to shimashita
aruku arukimashita kesu  keshimashita
       
tsu changes to chimashita nu changes to nimashita
tatsu tachimashita shinu shinimashita
       
mu changes to mimashita au changes to aimashita
nomu nomimashita arau araimashita
The “rule-breakers” in my flashcard decks are all the same from the last lesson.  You have to memorize them:
suru (to do) is shimasu
kuru (to come) is kimasu

kaeru (to return) is kaerimasu
hashiru (to run) is hashirimasu
kiru (to cut) is kirimasu.
hairu (to enter) is hairimasu.

Remember, you don’t need to master an entire flashcard deck in one form/tense.  Just practice this deck until you get the hang of it  Once it starts to feel natural, move onto the next lesson.  Have fun!  Conjugate these verbs from the plain-form into the polite form in past tense:

[qdeck align=”center”; style=”width: 440px; height: 315px; border: 4px solid #000080;” random=”false”] [h] Verb Flashcards – Polite Positive Past Form

[q] あく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あきました(akimashita)

(something) opens
[q] あるく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あるきました(arukimashita)

to walk
[q] いく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]いきました(ikimashita)

to go
[q] おく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おきました(okimashita)

to put
[q] かく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かきました(kakimashita)

to write / draw
[q] きく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ききました(kikimashita)

to listen / hear / ask
[q] さく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]さきました(sakimashita)

to bloom / flower
[q] つく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つきました(tsukimashita)

to arrive
[q] なく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]なきました(nakimashita)

to bark / mew / cry
[q] はく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はきました(hakimashita)

to put on shoes or pants / to sweep
[q] はたらく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はたらきました(hatarakimashita)

to work
[q] ひく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ひきました(hikimashita)

to pull something / to play an instrument
[q] ふく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ふきました(fukimashita)

to blow
[q] みがく – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]みがきました(migakimashita)

to polish / brush
[q] およぐ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]およぎました(oyogimashita)

to swim
[q] ぬぐ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ぬぎました(nugimashita)

to take off / undress
[q] おす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おしました(oshimashita)

to push
[q] かえす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かえしました(kaeshimashita)

to return (something)
[q] かす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かしました(kashimashita)

to lend
[q] けす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]けしました(keshimashita)

to turn off / put out
[q] さす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]さしました(sashimashita)

to put (up an umbrella) / to point out
[q] だす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]だしました(dashimashita)

to extract / take out
[q] なくす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]なくしました(nakushimashita)

to lose (something)
[q] はなす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はなしました(hanashimashita)

to speak/talk/tell
[q] わたす – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]わたしました(watashimashita)

to hand over
[q] しぬ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しにました(shinimashita)

to die
[q] あそぶ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あそびました(asobimashita)

to play
[q] よぶ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]よびました(yobimashita)

to call/invite
[q] すむ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]すみました(sumimashita)

to live/reside (in)
[q] たのむ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]たのみました(tanomimashita)

to ask (a favor)
[q] のむ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]のみました(nomimashita)

to drink
[q] やすむ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]やすみました(yasumimashita)

to take a rest / be absent
[q] よむ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]よみました(yomimashita)

to read
[q] あう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あいました(aimashita)

to meet / to fit
[q] あらう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あらいました(araimashita)

to wash
[q] いう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]いいました(iimashita)

to say/speak/tell/talk
[q] うたう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]うたいました(utaimashita)

to sing
[q] かう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かいました(kaimashita)

to buy
[q] すう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]すいました(suimashita)

to inhale
[q] ちがう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ちがいました(chigaimashita)

to be different / wrong
[q] つかう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つかいました(tsukaimashita)

to use
[q] ならう – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ならいました(naraimashita)

to learn
[q] たつ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]たちました(tachimashita)

to stand up
[q] まつ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]まちました(machimashita)

to wait
[q] もつ – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]もちました(mochimashita)

to have / hold
[q] ある – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ありました(arimashita)

to be (inanimate) / have
[q] うる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]うりました(urimashita)

to sell
[q] おわる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おわりました(owarimashita)

to finish
[q] かえる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かえりました(kaerimashita)

to return / go home
[q] かかる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かかりました(kakarimashita)

to take (time / money)
[q] かぶる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かぶりました(kaburimashita)

to put on (a hat)
[q] きる – Past | Positive | {polite}
not “to wear”[a]きりました(kirimashita)

to cut
[q] こまる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]こまりました(komarimashita)

to be in trouble
[q] しまる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しまりました(shimarimashita)

(something) closes
[q] しる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しりました(shirimashita)

to know
[q] すわる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]すわりました(suwarimashita)

to sit down
[q] つくる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つくりました(tsukurimashita)

to make / form / cook
[q] とまる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]とまりました(tomarimashita)

(something) stops
[q] とる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]とりました(torimashita)

to take
[q] なる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]なりました(narimashita)

to become
[q] のぼる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]のぼりました(noborimashita)

to climb
[q] のる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]のりました(norimashita)

to get on
[q] はいる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はいりました(hairimashita)

to enter
[q] はしる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はしりました(hashirimashita)

to run
[q] はじまる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はじまりました(hajimarimashita)

(something) starts
[q] はる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はりました(harimashita)

to put / stick
[q] ふる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ふりました(furimashita)

to fall (rain / snow)
[q] まがる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]まがりました(magarimashita)

to turn
[q] やる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]やりました(yarimashita)

to do
[q] わかる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]わかりました(wakarimashita)

to understand
[q] わたる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]わたりました(watarimashita)

to cross
[q] あける – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あけました(akemashita)

to open something
[q] あげる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あげました(agemashita)

to give
[q] いれる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]いれました(iremashita)

to put in
[q] うまれる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]うまれました(umaremashita)

to be born
[q] おしえる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おしえました(oshiemashita)

to tell / teach
[q] おぼえる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おぼえました(oboemashita)

to memorize
[q] かける – Past | Positive | {polite}
not to “put on glasses”[a]かけました(kakemashita)

to make a phone call / hang
[q] かける – Past | Positive | {polite}
not “to make a phone call”[a]かけました(kakemashita)

to put on glasses
[q] きえる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]きえました(kiemashita)

to disappear
[q] こたえる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]こたえました(kotaemashita)

to answer / reply
[q] しめる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しめました(shimemashita)

to close something
[q] たべる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]たべました(tabemashita)

to eat
[q] つかれる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つかれました(tsukaremashita)

to get tired
[q] つける – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つけました(tsukemashita)

to turn on / light
[q] つとめる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]つとめました(tsutomemashita)

to work for
[q] でる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]でました(demashita)

to leave / attend
[q] ならべる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]ならべました(narabemashita)

to line (things) up
[q] はれる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はれました(haremashita)

to clear up
[q] みせる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]みせました(misemashita)

to show
[q] わすれる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]わすれました(wasuremashita)

to forget
[q] あびる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]あびました(abimashita)

to take (a shower)
[q] いる – Past | Positive | {polite}
not “to need”[a]いました(imashita)

(for people) to exist / stay
[q] おきる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おきました(okimashita)

to get up
[q] おりる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]おりました(orimashita)

to get off
[q] かりる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かりました(karimashita)

to borrow / rent
[q] きる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]きました(kimashita)

to wear
[q] できる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]できました(dekimashita)

can do something
[q] みる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]みました(mimashita)

to see / watch / look
[q] かいぎ(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かいぎ(を)しました(kaigi o shimashita)

to hold a meeting
[q] かいもの(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]かいもの(を)しました(kaimono o shimashita)

to go shopping
[q] けっこん(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]けっこん(を)しました(kekkon o shimashita)

to get married
[q] コピー(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]コピー(を)しました(copii o shimashita)

to make a copy
[q] さんぽ(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]さんぽ(を)しました(sanpo o shimashita)

to take a walk
[q] しごと(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しごと(を)しました(shigoto o shimashita)

to work
[q] しつもん(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しつもん(を)しました(shitsumon o shimashita)

to ask somebody a question
[q] する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しました(shimashita)

to do
[q] しゅくだい(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]しゅくだい(を)しました(shukudai o shimashita)

to do homework
[q] せんたく(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]せんたく(を)しました(sentaku o shimashita)

to do laundry
[q] そうじ(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]そうじ(を)しました(souji o shimashita)

to clean
[q] でんわ(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]でんわ(を)しました(denwa o shimashita)

to make a phone call
[q] はなし(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]はなし(を)しました(hanashi o shimashita)

to have a talk
[q] パーティー(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]パーティー(を)しました(paatii o shimashita)

to have a party
[q] べんきょう(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]べんきょう(を)しました(benkyou o shimashita)

to study
[q] りょうり(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]りょうり(を)しました(ryouri o shimashita)

to cook
[q] りょこう(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]りょこう(を)しました(ryokou o shimashita)

to take a trip
[q] れんしゅう(を)する – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]れんしゅう(を)しました(renshuu o shimashita)

to practice
[q] くる – Past | Positive | {polite}[a]きました(kimashita)

to come
[/qdeck]
Polite Form, Non-Past Negative Polite Form, Non-Past
Polite Form, Non-Past Japanese Verbs Index Negative Polite Form, Non-Past