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Japanese Grammar -すぎる (sugiru) means “too much”

Placing すぎる (sugiru) after the stem of a verb or adjective is a way to express that something is excessive in Japanese.  It is similar to saying “too much”.

Forms

verb stem + すぎる (sugiru)
adjective stem + すぎる (sugiru)

 

Finding the stem of a verb or adjective

In case you missed what a “verb stem” is from our previous lessons, it’s the main part of a verb that comes before masu.  For example, the stem of たべます (tabemasu) is たべ (tabe).  The stem of いきます (ikimasu) is いく (iku).  To find a stem for an adjective, simply remove the last  (i) or  (na).  おいしい (oishii) gets cut down to おいし (oishi), and so on.  Finding the stem of a verb or adjective off the top of your head will come naturally as you continue to learn Japanese, so don’t worry if it seems challenging at first.

We can then attach すぎる (sugiru) to a verb stem or an adjective stem using the correct form.  

Attaching すぎる to a verb stem:

べる

taberu

(eat)

べすぎる

tabesugiru

(eat too much)

taberu tabesugiru

Attaching すぎる to an adjective stem:

おおきい

ookii

(big)

大きすぎる

ookisugiru

(too big)

ookii ookisugiru

 

An important point to make is that すぎる (sugiru) is actually a verb in itself.  It doesn’t seem like it is, since “too” is an adverb in English, right?  Maybe it helps you if we translate sugiru as “to be too much”.  Now we can see that sugiru is really just an obnoxious cousin of あります (arimasu), a verb that means “to be”.  Realizing it’s a verb is very important because we have to conjugate it as one.  すぎる (sugiru) by itself becomes すぎます(sugimasu). たすぎる (tabesugiru) becomes たべすぎます (tabesugimasu).  The result is some kind of verb sandwich, or something.  Sorry.. I’m hungry.

More examples of すぎる (sugiru)

そのひとはちょっとべすぎましたね。

sono hito wa chotto tabe-sugimashita ne.

(That person ate a little too much.)

sono hito wa chotto tabe-sugimashita ne  
   

このカレーはからすぎる。

kono karee wa kara-sugiru.

(This curry is too hot.)

 

kono karee wa kara-sugiru

   

このシャツはおおきすぎる

kono shatsu wa ooki-sugiru.

(This shirt is too big.)

 

kono shatsu wa ookisugiru

   

ビールをみすぎました。

biiru o nomi-sugimashita.

(I drank too much beer.)

 

biiru o nomisugimashita

   

あの自転車じてんしゃ値段ねだんたかすぎました。

ano jitenshano nedan wa takasugi mashita.

The price of that bicycle was too high.

 

ano jitenshano nedan wa takasugi mashita.

そのくつたかすぎる。

Sono kutsu wa takasugiru.

Those shoes are too expensive.

Sono kutsu wa takasugiru.  
 

あまりさけぎるのは、危険きけんだ。

Amari sake o nomisugiru no wa, kiken da.

It is dangerous to drink too much.

 

Amari sake o nomisugiru no wa, kiken da.

 

すぎた。

nesugita.

(I slept too much.)

 

nesugita.

 

しゅうくん、ぎだよ。デブるぞ。

shuukun tabesugidayo deburuzo.

(Shu, you’re eating too much. You’ll get fat!)

 

shuukun tabesugidayo deburuzo.

 

くらぎる。

kurasugiru.

(It’s too dark.)

 

kurasugiru.

 
After: ATO DE Japanese Grammar Index To be good at: GA JOUZU